November 22, 2016


The being of man is  extremely  complex  in  human  society  and indeterminate .Man by nature is evil parochial unconcilliatory conciliatory and can be good by nature only if  he  so wills Evidence of  history  abound  to prove this indisputable fact .In philosophy self preservation is the very first law of human nature. This might have encouraged the parochialism in man which is in turn the very first law of  self preservation .This propensity is prevalent  in capitalist world of Adam Smith which preaches preservation of self interest and competition acting against each other to regulate free market Ninety years after Wealth of Nations. Karl  Marx was to  make the most  rebellious and portentous declaration of how capitalism  slowly proceeded but reluctantly and ineluctably  into doomsday . The existentialist philosophers such  as Kierkegaard , Sartre ,  Heidegger , Kant by modern teaching believed that man is alone in a meaningless world  that he is completely free to choose his action  and that his actions determine his nature .
Man as Marx claimed  is not natural a being  but’ human natural being’ whose being is for himself [Carver,1983], human[constructive] and [deconstructive/destructive ] inhuman parochialism is at work here .He described man as biological [aggressive jealous and territorially protective ], sociological and psychological [autonomous self reflective and creative using constructive parochialism[ altruism] in the society ] .Man ’s dual nature  and  manicheanistic bias  was captured  by this admiration and also sees man as capable of limitless thinking conceptual problem solving and autonomous in innovative  activity and can harmonize  social and  community  relations .On the other hand  man is capable of  substituting  oppressive power for creative power while safeguarding his heteronomous nature . Or might set up barriers rather than build bridges to other communities  [Bottomore ,1991] ,[Iyanda,2001] .
 The constraints imposed by life challenges tends to influence this nature in man .Long before Marx ancient  political philosophers have ascribed similar attributes to man ‘s nature .From Plato and Aristotle down to Hegel  Marx and Engel and Lenin by the nature of their philosophies and writings certain basic common  underlying principles unite them ; Such as the culture structure and origin of the state and most importantly the  nature of man .Plato believes that ordinary men are both selfish and rational and all men are potential tyrants .Commenting in this light Aristotle affirmed  that human beings are inherently wicked .
In the Leviathan Hobbes  concluded that men love liberty and the ability to dominate their fellow men although Locke holds that man’s nature  is inherently  good  .In the Citizen Locke also observed that man should be restrained from fear of coercive power or else every man will distrust each other .Contrary to this dissenting opinions Marx and Engel believe that the prevailing pattern and nature  of production and distribution of wealth  determines the nature of man .They were quick to point out in the anatomy of class struggle that economic mode of production in every era determines the political and intellectual antecedence of that era .
It is true that an average humanity is capable of this dualistic expression and potentially he by nature is an indeterminate human superior and capable of unleashing pain and pleasure good or horror and  evil on the society should his right be denied him. We make bold  to affirm that inequalities of wealth in every society of the world is unusually very high and about 80 percent of world population do not have economic right. The human institution is highly impugned , insensitive government  abound  everywhere and infinite potential unusually abhorred  . Managing human resource therefore constitutes the most difficult task of all life cultural endeavors.
This is naturally expedient thing to observe because in the  Marxian theory of surplus value man is the only producer of  surplus value which relates  to man’s unlimited capability on the ground that all other factors of production parade material finiteness. That he is a limitless thinker justified this axiom . According to Marx  , human labor contributed this value that is appropriated into wealth by capitalists . Human capital is the most productive capital . For instance ,  in the Jakarta  Plan while the country ’s  physical capital accounts for  16percent  of its wealth formation and natural wealth about 20 percent , human capital gulps 64percent close to twice the above .[Iyanda, 2001] .
Where economic right is  heavily abhorred or where circumstances benefited some to the repugnance of the wishes of the  majority and those  powerful likely to be affected by change may thwart effort to protect the statusquo.Eileen Wolf described this suffering class as victims who are  threatened by change Wolf victims of insensitive  change are  the majority poor in the society . Victims of mass deprivation may find no alternative  than to revisit the same  offence  back to the society or to insensitive government  which has contributed to the ordeal  as consequences . For a larger part  of human history  it has been the major  cause of social instability and intermittent crisis and global  wars .This is common in the territory that failed to invest in its people  .
It can be contended for instance that for close to 50 years since independence the underlying thesis is that Nigeria as a country measured development  in terms of physical structures or the number  of construction  cranes operating at a time contrary to Jakarta  plan .It has largely ignored the most crucial element of development. Physical infrastructure though good is not the basis of development but only the outcome of development. Unfortunately Nigeria today has more two thousand state owned companies with no adequate skills to man them. The end result is phenomenal deindustrialization shrinking formal market and passive oil wealth .Of course poor capacity ordinarily leads to poor nation building and gross under development  truncating potential density of development.
Other statistics are scary as they cut across every sector of the economy .Using the nation as a case study which constitutes one-sixth of African population it is the same story across the continent where 70-80% of SSA region population lived below poverty line .The panacea as observed in building capacity for sustainable development is to harness the informal sector  not through public noise  by policy makers and industry regulators which has persisted for decades in the developing territories defying every attempted resolve .
                                IN   NIGERIA
Learning to climb the Ladders of  development and value chain is a fundamental resource  and a demanding choice  of  man , communities and nations worldwide . We  remember Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of  needs
.It ’s easy to get stuck in a psychological trap when consideration is given to basic physiological needs such as houses foods capital clothes cars and various facilities that guaranteed comfortable living .As these needs mature or are attained they cease to be motivators of performance as man’s preference and precedence move up the value chain craving for  further satisfaction and sustainability in the everyday complicated challenges ..Nations and economies share the same burden like Man facing emotional challenges that is particularly more important in a sensible society that values  national precedence beyond mere frivolous parochial or alternative competing needs .
Since development is a binding factor of humanity an attempt to define this subject is as long as humanity can remember but by 1960 became specifically important and more prominent in various academic literature and scholarly references .This era witnessed the universal declaration of global development decade . According to UN . development means people and welfare remains its essence goals and objectives when measured in real terms [ quality of life index ] .Contextually , Todaro  [1997: 70] and Igun [2004] in general terms break them down  emphasized the craft of development into the following :
n  Increase in availability of basic means of life such as food shelter healthcare and protection with sustainable enhanced distribution ;
n  Increase in standard of living such as higher income higher education better jobs together with increase in human self esteem  and cultural net worth ;
n  Increase in citizenry freedom, economically independent nation freedom from alien people from ignorance misery and servitude .
Whitehead [1982] also emphasizes the need for 6 basic  means of life namely : Healthcare/Medicare  ; housing ; land ; clothing ; foods ; and
Water. HDI –Human development index  is a combination of  these  indicators necessary to ensure adequate standard of living .The UNDP/ HDI  approach at measuring development stresses the need for human welfare and denotes human welfare as the ultimate essence of any development planning basinal  process be it social  and economic imperatives .To measure prosperity it also stresses economic efficiency over all units in the society.
In the 1990 report UNDP specifically emphasizes the need for growth and development process should involve social and economic equity where conducive environment is created both collectively or socially  and individually . But there are no philosophy supporting this greatest vision and provision in the history of man .This eventually find a voice in neomarxism . The provision  enables the underprivileged in the society to harness their full potential for the purpose of leading a fulfilled  productive and creative life [UNDP1990:5] .Similarly , the rise  of sustainable human development concept was borne out of desire to sustain credible antecedence of HDI or any development attained in the field .Brundtland commission 1987 quoted in UNDP report on Human development 200/01 defines it thus as ‘meeting the needs of the present generation  without jeopardizing ‘the needs of’ the future generation ’.This rhymes with Fiona Harvey definition of sustainable development  in 2007 .
According to UNDP certain key elements form the concept of sustainable human development .This includes :
n  Development of the people ; Development for the people ; and Development by the people . The first notion  entails human capabilities and health enhancement  so that they can motivate people to participate fully in life .While the least emphasizes the need to  provide opportunity to every citizen  to participate fully in the development process ; the 2nd notion entertains belief in creating and providing equal priviledge for all people to have a fair share of benefits that flow from economic growth .This can be regarded as equalitarian or universal development that neomarxism preaches .
n  The UNDP human development report [1993]  say :This can be not be possible especially development by the people  without a spread of political social and economic power  to all .With such type of dispersal the social political and economical framework and functioning of the society can easily be influenced by the people giving them a sense of belonging in their nation  .According to the report it is a core element  of  human development .But the fact is clear :without a radical transformation of macroeconomic ideology and a review of the study of economics that constrains equilibrium in the sharing of wealth , it can never be possible
n  Human development is indeed a sacrosanct core element of the concept and nature  of development . The report graphically maintained that :
n  This view of human development implies that people by right should have access to a variety of avenues for exercising power .Its logic suggests that participation is both  a  means and an end and that the decentralisation  of government is desirable for its  sake .The mechanism through which people may exert influences can vary widely ; as individuals they can cast a vote or engage in entrepreneurial activities ,as groups they can form community organizations of different types  or belong to trade unions or ethnic associations . High levels of participation give natural expression to human capabilities -……………………………[UNDP,1998 : 4] / [ rephrased and requoted  by Igun[2004] .
n  It also noted gross inequities and highly disadvantaged people are increasingly marginalized from this power market which are usually the poor from women ,  children  and pious segment of the population and ethnic minorities .

Despite lofty provision for development and the maturity of development concept in some countries of the world and the giant strides made in the economy of development ,  mass development and infact the nature of  development on its own is persistently under siege even in the  advanced countries irrespective of landslide being recorded in science and technologies ,  the world today is still yet  to have a universal development ideology or a macro philosophy that unify the entire fabric of  humankind.  .
Sectarian , racial and quintessential  national interest besides usually  this economy is in crisis beginning from the dawn of human civilization . The Law of development which is in most cases the law of culture  says that: a nation must first have a  developmental philosophy ; and secondly should also observe  the great charters of liberty [GCL] as the constitution of mass development ; and then thirdly maintain and sustain its leverage, density  and tradition through robust bibliocracy when cultivated with the most appropriate and most affordable cultural system a society can find. In the succeeding chapters we explore  the abuse of the Law using Africa as the case study, Nigeria and America to some extent and the world at large  and certain syndromes and infections inherent in the abuse  befalling the nature of the society to unleash the rise and fall of great history and great civilization respectively .We also chart a new era for the continent in its ability to regain development density . A new chapter is opened in world history with  the rise of neomarxist era to achieve the goals and provisions of UNDP oriented to CREATE EGALITARIAN WORLD  as noted in above analysis .No society developed and sustained development without this law and no civilization had been sustainable fully  indicated how  depraved   they were perennially against  this ethos   . This remorseless abuse usually led to the fall of great civilizations that persisted till this day

No comments:

Post a Comment