February 28, 2011


Contextually Capacity refers to human character that is appropriate to support to human tradition and social development at a time .The primacy of human capacity cannot be underestimated in the general design of socioeconomic system appropriate to support living standard of the people .Its development determines the rate at which economy grows and the quality of human capacity has come to matter in modern times in addition to its primordial contribution to nation building and universal welfare as a whole .
However we need observe that its sustainability also more than determines its strategic impact to economic development and where capacity abuse is perpetrated or persistent there can be no development .This among other reason remains the catalyst for capital underdevelopment in most developing countries as a whole

Generally human capacity collectively supports social and economic development .Capacity remains the hardware and the changing climate of development the software vital but nature enthuses differently with capacity as the software and the climate and the human system -- the hardware that outlives the software during a round of mechanical operation or use .The value of human capacity cannot be demystified and a missing link that usually midwives underdevelopment .Appropriate capacity supports appropriate development at a time .Inadequacy of development at a time is caused by capacity inadequacies or the inability to reach optimum capacity needed to support highly demanded development needed at a time .
The appropriation of development cannot be attained unless capacity and appropriate standard needed are met and sustained before projected development can be met .HUMAN DEVELOPMENT begins by cultivation of required capacity vital to support a given human resource per capital which must supports itself first and foremost prior to general contribution to the development of the society .And effective human capacity follows tradition cycle thing with multiplier effect to transform a nation when collectively endorsed .Its quality by use and practice relative to institution and policy practice in an economy is indicated by the quality of information enterprise of a nation .
Since human capacity pioneers and authors human ,social , economic and political development , sustainability of the tradition flow cycle thing relative to collective social capital tends to nurture this capacity far better and consequently not only passes its effect to the socioeconomic system at large but also harbinger of much vaunted human civilization . We can contend that it is the circulation that matters which follows the tradition cycle flow [TCF ]- and such sustainable effect is vital to transform that jurisdiction from existing lethargy and the moribund nature of the socioeconomic system facing the hurdles and resolving the challenges of nation building .
To be precise sustainable human capacity promotes capacity building by aggregate contribution influences socioeconomic development and also sustainable capacity building through its collective wealth promotes social growth ,then sustainable social growth or development . This later snowballs social development in turn following the TCF completes or dovetails into sustainable social development until capital development is attained , harnessed and sustained .This indicates that capitalization of development in any clime can never be possible without appropriate human capacity which will midwives adequate appropriation of development demanded at a time ----
Capitalization of Development, Tradition Flow Cycle and Development Density

Capitalization of development is a central precedence in developed society The development critique school mainly the philosophers and scientists which provides diverse models put to mill to entrench development practice periodically undergo psychological reawakening and moral self-criticality-an inner audit process that reevaluates existing world models by every successive generation of modelers so that a model is not made inactive or left rigid in human tradition far too long .Such capitalization wrought by free will through intellectual freedom tends to restructure human belief system refocuses human tradition and development practice perspective scientifically using per capital competitive bias not only from the critique schools but also from the rest of civil society while evaluating our tradition .
This influences the policy makers in the same way as the modelers though to a lesser extent but most specifically the entire fabric of socioeconomic system that they superintend into growth and then into mass development .Their major responsibility is to shape the polity and the social psyche that supported it giving direction to mankind in general .This is passed from nation to nation ,generation to generation and from project to project .The quality of development equation at this consensus of psychological reawakening and modeling self criticality restructuring curve [ measured or tested at the birth of new models or those not accustomed to where development is traded for utility in the market place ] provided hurdles to learning are surmounted is the only competitive parameter and optimal leverage to grow development cycle from one stage successfully into order for true development to be actualized , sustained and benefits mutually spread to every class in the socioeconomic system .
Total reevaluation of this curve ordinarily insinuates successful market reforms in these territories to further consolidate on the previous gains of development-giving rebirth to elementary doctrine of development civilization .Those nations on the contrary where market had failed must be measured by this development deflator /inflator which addresses a review of previous strategies put in place to drive social capital so as to determine optimal result needed and accumulated .
However also at this stage man by nature highly culturally resistant to change exhibiting preferential bias in favor of the kind of change they desire to tolerate in contrast to following nature’s course which may be costly but the most effective . Inability to let go results into costly revolutions a washed in mortal antecedence .Controlling inexpedient futurity of this climate by practice tends to slow down the economy of development and also dampens sustainability of existing development antecedence . Nevertheless passion for works and strengthening of capacity building promotes and refines human arts with which further consolidation can be effected .Capacity building primarily to be precise is the subordinate institution of mass development[power triangle oriented ] and not just the basic art of development. It is the transit shed and the actualization framework of development materialism .The practice of this arts advocates development grows and matures mass development depending on the level of information adequacy existing in the society at a given period . With perpetual practice swinging from project to project and from activity to activity –a normal daily routine , cultivation of development is turned into arts and then into mass venture backed by sensitive political will and technology to become the very primogeniture of culture pass on from one culture age to the other .
Sensitive societies advocated this on a recyclical renewal basis transforming sustainable capacity building benefits into sustainable development .
To study the economy of development and development technology in a society one must first venture to unravel the open mystery of how traditional and scientific information flows freely or consumed by social capital and traded by it resting on culture .This culture popularly but unusually as repetitively emphasized is regarded as the economy of development nature , the foremost institution of nature and the foundation of the universe and life altogether .Man learning from this book of nature evolves the practice of development by domesticating relative capacity which is the author of development . And the ratio of development in a nation feeds from existing capacity .Consistent growth in this regard is not enough to measure sustainability but also the quality and the growth pace also contributed to it .
Development components includes growth , growth assets , growth regulation , growth criteria , accumulation of growth , sustainability of growth , attainment of development itself then, sustainability of development , and then the cycles of development until the last cycle of capital development which measures more of the spread , thickness and distribution of this development through the rapid gains of empiricism or using the gains of technology to circulate mutual benefit to all citizens. This procures development density in which all citizens are both socially and economically affected .Dividend here is usually regarded as civilization .
Development parameters such as tradition rigidity where necessary and incentive leveraging , regulatory standard , development forecast and benchmarking , trial and error processes , development remodeling and development auditing process , bridging learning gap [ critique schools outputs] , necessity and enlightenment demand , social capital and above all the interaction of information freedom over information asymmetry that distributes mass enlightenment which determines the nature of development economy in a society in which primordial goals are the same by observing the great charters of liberty .To ferry material development is to observe this social architecture and then stages can evolve using the political , economic and social power and will of a nation while mass enlightenment is leveraged to demand rigidly for mass development .
To devitalize on development is to deny extensively egalitarian access to cultural trinity and abuse this template and the consequence is to enter or embrace development dark ages and vice-versa .The entire development economy worldwide can be measured in this way which falls short of pass mark even if it were to be elementarily graded . Observance over time of this noted criteria automatically fuels development civilization which is made possible by reviewing the effect of these components and parameters in developing development and the extent to which the required sustainability is capitalized . .The basic law of development is already known which is mainly access to the use of cultural rights of man , observing the great charters and the affordable access to information democracy is a foremost starting point .That education especially social education matters a lot could no longer be doubted .
The institutionalization of affordable information access promotes capital development adequacy in the long run .The only challenge a nation has is how to maneuver power triangle [being the secondary institution of development and often by its structural defects tend to ridicule the primary institution of development ] into attainment of this capitalization which is why development is faster in one society than the other; irrespective of competitive self interest over time social interest in such economy always prevail –an exposition or a reflection of the quality of social capital in that jurisdiction . The societies that made themselves poor ate poor excreta fallen short when categorized using this simple indicator. A society must have attained certain level of this adequacy , democratic flow of information enterprise development and optimization before capital development can be cultivated or made possible .
It is to be noted or remembered that optimum use of information enterprise promotes by multiplier effect mass innovation .In the economy of nature art system market is nurtured by information free market which is the author of full blown cultural free market and also interchangeably and the latter still through artistic evolution It is also the author of capacity free market which in turn authors or cultivates development market economy as they spread over population free market .Nature moves along this cultural trap cycles which is embarrassingly obvious influencing humanity as the epicenter of development by projecting and planning traditionally following similar rules from the ancient until now. Unknowing to man scientific planning cannot be embarked effectively even if growth in technology advance sustain ably unless we first unravel the nature of development economy in the cultural market –in view of the growth and diminishing returns threat to human civilization .
This development pattern and standard is fixed but the capacity to maneuver the template consumed man ’s ateliery . No wonder Francis Bacon admitted man is an interpreter of nature learning from this book [nature] and development evolution in the family of man has followed this line of thoughts for the entire stretch of utilitarian culture and history .The challenge for developed societies which have observed the rudiments of development is to sustain civilization and avoid development boom and burst cycles . Given the glaring evidence of history and development antecedence that no civilized society in mortal history since ancient until now has been able to sustain her civilization . HENCE SUSTAINING CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT IS NOT ENOUGH EVERY CIVILISATION DID ATTAIN THIS CYCLE BUT SUSTAINING THE TORCH OF CIVILISATION and spread to adjoining races is the greatest challenge in the cultural free market and human history .

Development and Core Competence
Coming down to the developing history , certain parameters ,according to a study by Saleh Nsouli , once concluded that three most important and interrelated components vital to economic development : capacity building ; good governance ; and economic reform .Capacity building is defined as the development of skills and institutions as critical element to the attainment of sustainable economic growth and development .Without good governance full exploitation of acquired skills will be practically impossible and domestic institutions grossly underperformed . And to leverage on economic reforms effectively without a well functioning institutions could be exercise in futility or not operated properly .
The quality of the institution itself is a reflection of the extent of capacity building –a core resource for economic growth which uses the institutions as a framework through which corporations and people participates in economic development producing incentives for investment and the resources ’ allocative efficiency .The importance of institutions is somehow extremely underestimated in the developing history and to some extent advanced countries .No territory is immune and specifically citing the market downturns and meltdowns that plagued the united states was linked to poor quality of institutions and here is a region hitherto previously regarded as sacrosanct .
Africa ’s growth rates and potentials in the 60s was ranked ahead of East Asia ’s .Nsouli study consistent with Easterly and Levine [97] provided empirical evidence that lack of sustainability truncated this potential due to political and social factors , poor institution , political instability , bad governance and corruption and inadequate infrastructure .Rodrik [97] shares similar evidence with a view that quality of institution in the region exceeded in real terms contribution by classical economic variables such as technical progress , accumulation of capital and labor supply increases . Capital accumulation and the quality of the institutions according Hall and Jones [1999] in the study of 133 nations are complementary essential to long lasting growth .The two sets of institutions noted by Nsouli and Rodrik [1999] studies : both regulatory institutions and those that supports efficient functioning of the market are pivotal framework for long lasting growth .
NO wonder capacity building concept is the most popular phrase in the development discourse .According to Infocotonou , the European centre for Development Policy Management noted why aid is not generating sustainable impacts or policies fail to deliver . This was linked to capacity problems as admitted by foreign donors and government alike .In the world bank study for long term development prospects for the SSA region .From Crisis To Sustainable Growth [1989] capacity building is immensely shortchanged or under threat and grossly inadequate .That capacity for sound policy design and policy sustainability is in dire need or critical short supply in nearly every sector of African economies .
For instance in the Nigerian public sector serious capacity gaps [ ratio of derivation between required and actual workforce ] exist especially in most ministries and agencies .
The inadequacy in the quality of technical skills and the shortfall in the quantity of available man power posed serious problem to economic development .The inadequacy was also recognized in the national capacity assessment report [Nigeria/World Bank, 2002] affecting negatively in the way public resources are shared and coordinated .The report details were shocking . unequal staff structure , staff concentration in semi skilled and unskilled labour category while qualified staff were grossly lacking in critical areas [ i.e finance ,economics , policy analysis , general management and IT] .The civil service was said to be over staff at the lower levels and overworked at the higher levels ; ratio of trained workers to total staff strength was very low and very insignificance to some extent citing lack of funds as a major reason behind the shortfall ; more than 70 % of sampled institutions could not meet training needs . [Obadan 2003:Capacity Building For Development [1] . ] . In the private sector the problem of skills mismatch that do not correlate with industry needs abound . The virtual collapse of educational institutions since the 80s churned out half baked graduates that hardly finds jobs to compete in the economy and 70 percent of which hardly can defend their certificates ;though the workforce are better here than in public sector .Imagine , Lagos state- the richest state in Nigeria perhaps by IGR and the commercial capital controls more than 50 percent of entire skilled work force in Nigeria and two third of industrial sector . Unfortunately poverty level is as high as 70 percent-we mean 70 percent of Lagos are rural .That is Nigeria –the elusive giant of Africa .The same story is grimier in the rest of Africa the middle east and beyond
Obadan [2003] commenting these inadequacies and the challenges facing Africa affirmed that ‘ this among others …..informed the nature and pattern of external donors interventions .In spite of the efforts made the practice of capacity building so far leaves much to be desired and capacity building continues to pose challenges that may be addressed effectively in the long run ’ .
In the developed territories we have noted that poor institutions also abound and the capacity building predicaments there are more linked with poor models which further humiliates and degenerates the quantity and quality of development produced in the insensitive developing region . The institutions that supported development in this region were nurtured over the course of 400 years or so. Hence rigidity of tradition could also influence biblio maniasis and to avoid this dark age empiricism of past leprosy in development can easily be exhumed . To resolve these challenges facing humanity put together , we need a reminder or briefly re explore the economics of information democracy and the strategic impact governing affordable information access.

Successful capacity building rests squarely on the success of a nation ’s information enterprise which could add value to TCF If harnessed .The cost effectiveness of this market incentives promoted by its enterprise are hereby noted :
--promotes social , economic and political awareness
--ensures universal freedom such as freedom of information at least on a tolerable level inimical to preservation of human rights abuse
--Promotes mass innovation using the democracy of information freedom and ensure development in the longer term
--Without information freedom which is the sole feature of a democracy unknown to many subsidiaries such as freedom of thoughts , freedom of association , freedom of speech , security of life and property etc,among others democracy cannot be sustained.This indicates that democracy in the developing countries is living on borrowed times since the economic framework to support it is grossly lacking
--If the above is sustained the path of development cycles can also be sustained and completed until the last stage capital development or its density is sustained .These are indicators for sustainability .

World development ideologies change with time and to capitalize development successfully, the socioeconomic system model must be changed to go alongside robust formula as suitable in the third world in which we have noted democratic formula hardly succeeded or go along to contribute to meaningful development ..A socioeconomic system composed of political ,social to economic system in this region is highly inimical to growth-- a safeguard of growth abuse and the main contributor to capital underdevelopment .Every decade they recorded economic growth but are hardly sustained .This emphasizes the need for change which cannot be possible without self-determination to observe neomarxism and get off the yoke of western aggressors . Learning lessons from emerging markets could give inspiration and practice is another thorn in the flesh of indolent nations where development deputisation deposition colonialisation abound and bibliomaniasis is highly valued as the antiquities .THE NEED FOR CHANGE cannot be bargained for dregs otherwise perdition of these nation states is never far away
In a fast changing climate ordinarily development according to several school of thoughts is determined , quickened or hastened by several factors mainly policies and appropriate institutions put in place to midwive meaningful change that a society or an economy demands at its own trying time which must be supported as noted earlier by highly evolving developmental ideology of the nation to evoke requisite mass of capital development needed to maintain and sustain social life and access to universal wealth . The challenge in our world today we have noted repetitively: is how responsive and effective are the socioeconomic system as a whole and especially the existing macroeconomic models’ reaction and sensitivity to this changing climate ?

We affirmed that the study of economics from the antiquity until now has never been able resolve the evils of inflation which is the fundamental economic problem let alone its endless tiring theories being propounded by macroeconomists in modern times which has only proliferated in vain Since the days of Thomas Mun,s Mercantilists theory which pioneered modern doctrine of larger market and imperialism or among others earlier in the Neolithic to the Medieval if any of this mode down to classical economics and Keynesian period until this era of the Neoclassical and the monetarists and the like , the vicious indulgence circle riding on the heels of intellectual terrorism sorry to say has assumed a maniacal proportion and refused to abate .Consequently , development colonization development arbitraging and development holocaust respectively as components of development crisis have been legacies bequeathed to development market of the third world countries countering requisite density or mass of capital development that has often eluded these territories for a long stretch of human history.
Infact , insiders such as Robert Barro at Harvard Keynesian Paul krugman of Princeton University and New York Times Brad De Long of the University of California and William Buiter of London School of Economics [LSE] and a host of others have noted this gradual degeneration .They contended that economics is a dismal science. That the past 30 years of macroeconomics training at American and British Universities and the entire west were ‘a costly waste of time ’ The U. S meltdown greatly plummeted any notion of confidence or provoked crisis of confidence in the field and a glaring evidence of the dismal science .In the best PhD programmes based on the opinions of some economists , macroeconomics it is regarded often as the least most popular class . It is a misnomer to believe that it is a panacea nor even a relief to human and economic misery .
On June 10 , 2009 at a Lionel Robins lecture held at the LSE—London School Of Economics Krugman noted that most macroeconomics of the past 30 years was ‘spectacularly useless and positively harmful at worst ’ .That is particularly a scathing remark and can never be better than this especially when coming from the mouth of an insider-Is that a good halitosis ? Your guess is as good as mine .They failed to diagnose the causes of economic crisis during the melt down not to talk of proffering solutions for recovery uphill They were dormant hardly learnt new things and keep repeating the same mistakes over time
Of course these internal critics were against themselves too both the ‘ purists ‘ freshwater and the saltwater ‘ pragmatists ‘ The behavioral economists and the apologists of efficient market hypothesis raved against each other .Although Paul Krugman noted that ‘ we are living through a dark age of macroeconomics ‘ he was nevertheless criticized by some other macroeconomists such as De Long for falling back on antiquated Keynesian doctrines ‘ as if nothing had been learned over the last 70 years ’ After all many scientists the economists believed ‘ do not leaf through Newton ‘s world machine ‘ principia mathematical’ to solve basic problems in the study of physics .
For the upteempth time in this fast changing technology age existing macroeconomics models ordinarily must also change perhaps at the same pace in which today’s technology changes .The fact is clear: the poorest regions of the world mainly Africa and the middle east despite landslide GDP growth over the years which is measured by declining share of world trade and especially the growing flaccidity in the natural wealth or assets indicates that GDP in real terms precisely does not take into account .There is no need to re-emphasise what is known already –In a cursory analysis let us access challenges facing Africa as a leading case study in this episode .
Like elsewhere around the world the relevance of international financial architecture to Africa cannot be underestimated at this critical period of her history in view of vital demand for development practice in the continent . The quality of growth and development in this territory is heavily interrogated . Greater macroeconomic stability attained especially in the SSA region over the years unarguably grossly masked and shortchanged the quality of this practice and vastly underdeveloped its needed density and pedigree not translated into lasting growth in the continent in the long run . Unfortunately the vicious trap cycle continues without remorse and alternative recourse since the colonial era .

As usually emphasized demand for development in the continent is under perpetual siege. No wonder nominal and precisely real development is similarly under siege and close to zero . What can we do ? .Challenges facing the practice stems from seemingly insurmountable factors such as poor mass enlightenment ; inappropriate demand for development ; cultural inhibitive supply factor flaccidity ; and above all lack of homegrown ideology OR which we have analyzed or diagnosed under acquired immune deficiency DDDCH syndrome [DAIDS] OR SOCIO ECONOMIASIS . This can be regarded on aggregate as mental poverty or spiritual poverty which is the author of all poverty types be it income or economic form of poverty ; physical ;political and social forms of poverty .It is the world greatest plague behind social misery .Before we can resolve this problem we must tackle socioeconomic effect of Braindrain in the continent .
According to Daniel Cohen in the piece ‘Veils of Ignorance ’that two of three Americans sincerely believed that being black is synonymous to poverty and the rest did enthuse that blacks were probably unlucky . For the umpteenth time yet the pinnacle of their civilization was black by origin .It is a derogatory statement to be made especially for the ignoramuses around being deceived by their shortsighted philosophers and who failed to uncover the strategic importance of the mother of all races and her indelible place in mortal antecedence .Underestimating her unparalleled antecedence surely marked the path to perpetual economic decline
The concept of Braindrain particularly is more worrying which reduces the growth rate of available and effective human capital shrinks income level , reduces the existing size of income per capital and GDP capitalizing gross underdevelopment in the long run .That is why Africans need to take serious considerations on its economic impact and effect on labour and standard of living and international competitiveness [Hague and kim].It has greater impact on international trade and commerce and often occurs between nations states and communities and impact heavily on the climate of sustainable development [Uwaje,2001].
It is to be noted that the Braindrain scourge is one of the author of mass poverty and is synonymous to capital underdevelopment .According to international Organization for migration and the United Nations Economic commissions for Africa ; for many Africans who went abroad and returns with professional expertise and as skilled labour there are many more that never return . The scourge is particularly nauseating and steadily increasing .Between 1960-1975 about 27 ,000 exceptionally qualified professionals were estimated to have departed their home countries .And between 1985—90 another 60,000 also departed and since the continent has been loosing 20 ,000 professionals annually .This is particularly worrying because the figures do not include the student population that also departed to study abroad with no hope of likely return .Out of every 100 professionals departing annually only 35 do not return .About 64percnt of Nigerians between the age of 25 and older and 43 percent of all Africans living in U.S.have one bachelor ‘s degree at least .The Senegalese doctors in the U.S. CITY OF CHICAGO is more than in the whole of Senegal .Likewise if the Nigerian doctors at the general hospital in Kuwait should return home enmasse today that hospital will be closed down . There are many more Nigerian doctors and nurses in Saudi Arabia and the .U.S. THAN in the whole of Nigeria put together .
AS a matter of fact Nigeria has more than 21,000 doctors in the U.S. alone as opposed to over 30,000 local doctors . This figure for the U.S. is even more than real local estimates because not all Nigerian local doctors are active excluding those with periodically renewed licenses. . Imagine about 1.7 hospital beds and 0.2 doctors per 1000 people and infact one doctor serving about 15 -20 ,000 clients in the north ; this is not peculiar to Nigeria and the emigrated ones do not dream of coming back .Writing in the ‘Professionals And the Economy ’Prince Bola Ajibola the former attorney general and minister of justice while recalling his experience as a Nigerian envoy at the court of St .James and the alarming number of Nigerians that have left the shores of the country since 1999 once noted that : Frankly speaking a considerable number of those who ought to contribute to the revival of the economy are outside the country . Many of these migrants are professionals .They are currently devoting their talents in developing other people’s economies all over the globe .Sadly the many hundreds of thousands of naira it takes to produce a Nigerian graduate and professional right from primary school to the University would appear to be wasted when you find him or her doing menial jobs such as attendants in the London underground ’
He continued ; United Nations Conferences on Trade and Development [UNCTAD] estimates as at 1979 shows that each African professional between the age of 25—35 contributes $184 ,000 each year to the United States economy .Current estimates are that at least 100 ,000 Nigerian professionals are practicing in the U.S. .Thus conservatively , Nigerian professionals contribute about $18.4billion to the U.S.economy . If adjustments for inflation over 20 years are made the mount of money will be more astonishing .If you include Nigerian professionals living in Canada Europe Saudi Arabia and South Africa the amount will be $100billion [ more than twice of nation’s GDP during the period ].Whereas the 30 ,000 doctors Nigerian born medical doctors is a child play when we consider the enormity of capital flight crisis effect .I dare say if there is a sudden withdrawal of Nigerian medical professionals [doctors and nurses ] from the united kingdom the national health service [NHS] will face dire consequences .’[defunct National interest Aug.24,2001pg.27]
He believed Saudi Arabia will face similar ordeals with adverse effects on their healthcare system should Nigerian doctors and nurses be withdrawn . He was surprised Nigerians were everywhere even in new Zealand ‘way down on the end of the planet ’ believing due to sheer distance will hardly come across any Nigerian but ‘to my utmost …. pleasant surprise ’according to him ‘ a reception ’was ‘held for me the same evening of my arrival by Nigerian professionals gainfully employed and contributing to New Zealand economy ’. That Nigerians are every where around should no longer be disputed and should not be the problem and many will never return according to our lawyer unless social amenities are provided . Social amenities or not people are always on the move even in South Africa where the climate is conducive professionals are moving in droves but who is filling the remaining vacuum ? Any way as we noted the scourge is a phenomenon across Africa .
In Ghana during the 1980s 60 percent of her doctors left the country putting enormous pressure on the healthcare sector while an estimated number of only 400 doctors are still left behind in Zambia out of close to two thousand doctors it formerly had . In 2003 Christian Science monitor reported within a decade in South Africa an estimated 20 percent of skilled workforce have departed the country and within five years in Zimbabwe professional workforce shrank by two third ; this is a grave situation . Now it lamented to replace this missing gap Africa spends 4 billion dollars annually importing some 100 , 000 skilled expatriate to fill the missing link . no wonder development of science and technology is stagnant and fast eroding as scientists emigrated in search of greener pastures .Forget about genocide such as happened in Rwanda I tell you this intellectual genocide not physical genocide far worse and far degrading .
The result today is known to all no growth sustained , let alone development nothing moves and decline persists as population increases .Policy put in place like NEPAD etc lack leverage to take the continent to the promise land . We contended already that only enlightened people demand for development and can prevent social , political and economic instability from degenerating into continental bloody wars . Today Africa remains the most scientifically backward territory of the world and behind the middleast is the world poorest region . no wonder some researches link that [ two out of three Americans ]thought that black is synonymous poverty . I S there ANY WAY OUT ? The spillover effect of Braindrain was profound .
The UNESCO WORLD science lamented that the continent failed to make any impact on new materials and product development far lagging in the ICT sector despite marginal growth in recent times .A 1992 survey put the total population of African scientists and engineers at 20,000 which represents a mere 0.36 percent of world scientists and the continent is responsible for less than 1 percent [0.8 %] of world scientific publication .While its shares of patent is next to zero with no Nobel laureate for any scientific discipline yet .It is a very serious situation because patents , scientific publications innovations and technologies are the common yardstick of growing civilization .
According to the report at the basis of this declining growth is the deterioration of learning . Education is declining due to negligible output contributed by science , research and development .In the public institutions , Africa’s expenditure is said to be less than 1 percent of GNP in which a good chunk of these scanty spending say 47 percent are pumped into agricultural forestry and piscatorial business whereas value additive , agro allied and manufacturing services persistently lacked behind . As at 2001 UNESCO report summary by Catherine Mgendi , besides Seychelles and South Africa no nation in the entire continent spend close to or 1 percent of her GNP on research and development .or larger chunk devoted to sciences .
Enrollment in science has fallen drastically especially in advanced learning institutions a major reason behind decline of science on the continent . In most countries about 0.5 percent of scientists and technicians existed for every 10,000 people in 1995 .let ’s take a look at secondary and tertiary enrollment in selected African countries. In The nation article on African science Mgendi noted as observed below :
Selected African and Asian countries compared
Secondary and vocational school enrolment per 10, 000 people

 South Africa ……………………………………………….1,085
 Korea………………………………………………………..1,037
 Gabon…………………………………………………………474
 China …………………………………………………………457
 Kenya ……………………………………………………………224
Tertiary Enrolment in the selected countries: compared

 South Africa ………………………………………………………80
 Korea ……………………………………………………………..381
Though the eight African counties rated favorably with six fastest growing in east and south Asia but the low enrollment in science is the greatest undoing .
Before we close this chapter , consider this sad and deplorable facts .According to the magazine –The Newsweek , the U.N. and World bank intensive studies that over the last 20 years which ended in 2003 Arab world average per capital growth rate had been less than 1 percent lower than that of Sub Saharan African region ..Unemployment was in double digits even though they were underestimated and labour productivity hardly changed since 1970s down to 1990s. In terms of access to foreign literature and ideas and technological development and exports middle east is the weakest and persistently the decline never abated. Likewise in Africa , her peer basket case , per capital income in Egypt in 1950 was rated exactly at the same level in South Korea but presently it is 80 % far lower than in the former times .During the same period under review the population of Egypt some 70 million people filed only 77 patents in the U.S. compared to 50 MILLION South Koreans filing 16 , 328 patents works .Today non –oil exports of Hungary is much bigger than all of African countries put together . These are some of the grievous mistakes and Braindrain factor could not have been resolved and exterminated completely
Note :Braindrain like many of African challenges to sum it up is a capacity problem correcting this shortfall will no doubt be a contributor or a function of sustainable capacity building which can only be harnessed and resolved in the longer term .

With this scourge Africans seem to be contributing to growth elsewhere to the detriment of their motherland .It should noted Braindrain has three types or categories : first we have colonial Braindrain which is slave trade using forceful expulsion of people to foreign lands but now the rest is history ;what we have today is neocolonial Braindrain in which the lure of civilization and greener pastures lured Africans persuasively to serve to grow the superior homeland. This is modern slavery –but the most deceptive fighting against local development like jihad or shall we say second slavery ?
Africa : the Land of crisis and natural wealth
There is no doubt that Africa is the richest territory of the world and cannot afford to do less since it controls or has 40 percent of world total strategic minerals and the Congo basin harbors half of these with the Niger delta having the highest numbers of rivers and waterways worldwide .70 percent of 300 ,000 species of world total fauna and flora are located in Africa but Niger delta controls 60 percent of these . World largest gas deposits according U.S. GEOLOGICAL STATISTICS is located in Nigeria [ and not Russia or Iran ] probably around 600tr.scf [as opposed to official 200tr.scft .].The world largest bitumen deposit in Ondo State , probably lead and zinc in the north according to one mining experts were found in Nigeria .South Africa controls world gold reserves , diamond and next to Russia in platinum and a world leader in palladium .Every state in Africa is endowed with one resource or the other . Africa controls more than 30 percent of world gold reserves The gulf of guinea is one of the richest and leading hydrocarbon regions of the world
Unfortunately this good development had become a gory tales and in some African countries natural resources have become a curse and not a blessing . From the blood diamond fields of Sierra Leone to the democratic rep. of Congo warring fields where a group of countries are at loggerheads and fighting over solid minerals down to the Angolan terrorist enclave , natural capital have been a source of imprecation and social upheaval .Let’s take look at this known statistics in an historical reminder ;
 20 percent of Africans are under condition of conflicts
 From the mid-90s upward beginning from Rwandan genocide more than a dozen countries were sucked into armed conflict and crisis perpetuated in the battle to control natural capital .The great lakes region together with Sudan captured international attention and they constitute a massive region quite as large as western Europe .
 Sudan has been mired in conflict all but 10 years since independence in 1956. while African first world war is going in the Congo dr. where 6 countries battle it out over solid minerals .
 The effect is poor capacity building and average per capital income is lower than in 1960s
 Nearly 50percent of SSA region citizens live below poverty line , the figure is 90 should we use poverty profile . etc.
 Border disputes abound and challenges of divisive pluralism as noted by Emeka Anyaoku in the piece ‘South Africa and the challenge of divisive pluralism ’is becoming clearer and direr as burden of development increases which can only resolved by grass root empowerment .

The only condition for sustainable growth and development is peace and social stability which will also create a platform for good trade and the ability to cover her trade gap and development gap with the rest of the world .
Averting cultural Brain drain :A bigger scourge
As a result of this horror tales cultural brain drain also became the natural consequence
Of this traditional brain drain. IF we fail to revive and value our culture as the last asset for black man renaissance , we have nothing to gain in the near future .Although this drain is not peculiar to AFRICA but SHE IS THE most affected .For instance , half of world 6 ,000 languages are expected to go extinct in this millennium .Though skeptics may not believe but close to 10 languages or 9 are already extinct in Nigeria out of bout 526 local dialects .Similar gory tales loom large across the region .
By this time we need to realize that Malaria alone that kills a child in Africa every 30 seconds is not just taking more than 1% off African GDP together with other epidemics like tuberculosis sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV/AIDS ,cancer of all types etc [that could be slicing between 10-20 % of potential growth ] but the slow nature of development and the existing unsustainability of previous development gave us utmost concern and a credible evidence of the long and tortuous road to development .The concern is: Should Africa fail to innovate as noted by Philip Emeagwali it will definitely perish .We noted that the traditional brain drain was long caused by cultural brain drain noted in the complacency of earlier civilization which can only be corrected by innovation to save the theft image that the word ‘dark age ’had bestowed on the continent especially in the post-colonial age.
General effect and International trade
It can be contended due to low capacity building , widespread economic , political crisis and large trade gap the continent is the most marginalized continent in the world .Blooms and Sachs [1988 ] noted that between 1980 –1996 it was the only continent to experience absolute trade decline whereas the volume of goods and services have grown over the years in other competing territories but in Africa has grown below the GDP .Between 1980—90 its share of world exports stood at 3percent but declined to 1.95 percent in the period between 1991—2001 .During similar period that of Asia grew from 11 percent to 18 percent in the latter period . The concentration on natural raw material commodities encouraged the decline .Dollar and kray [2001] also provided evidence that a group of developing countries that opened up their economy recorded astronomical growth . Uncompetitive economies like Africa would always stay behind due to loss of market share , unguarded trade liberalization , tariff barrier , marginalization from world markets with annual loses of more than 70billion dollars , lack of industrial goods and poor terms of trade or bad trade policies , protectionist policies , higher capital flight crisis .
To enumerate a bit , industrial goods are seriously lacking grossly from exports .The shares of manufactures in her exports since 1995 varied between 32-36 %. Whereas in south Asia the ratio stood at 78—79 % and for east Asia and the Pacific hovered around 78—83 percent with manufacturing accounting for one third of export .High transportation cost mainly affecting location of industrial activity and freight rates .Rodrik [99] commenting on the marginalization factor he observed unfavorable terms of trade , trade restriction practice of the trade policies , The GATT Uruguay Round of trade negotiation concluded in 1995 introduced new changes that led to WTO establishment .
The internal causes such as trade and exchange rate policies ; primary driven products haunted by price indetermination ; and uncompetitive nature of production. There is too much capital outflows .Collier , 1997 ]9. and Ajayi [ 1996 ]/[1997] argued a higher proportion of Africa’s wealth were stashed outside the continent in the form of capital flight and she integrated into global economy in a negative sense. They contended that capital flight varies between 24 to 134 % of GNP .This is also consistent with ECA study of 30 countries in the period of 1970—96 amounted to about 187 billion dollars .Infact it exceeds 200 percent for a group of eight countries in the ratio of capital stock to the GDP with weighted average of 172 percent for the group of Countries such as ANGOLA , Cameroon , Cote d ‘ivoire Congo [democratic] and Nigeria .In the last twelve years NIGERIA ALONE earned between 400—500billion dollars and every year 60 percent of this passive oil wealth were carted into western metropolis .Uneven flow of FDI is another challenge facing Africa over the last twenty years which ended at 2002 compared to the rest of the world .

AFRICA----------------------------------THE REST OF THE WORLD
Share % ? Share %
2000--------- 0.6 %-----------------------------------------$1.4trillion .
2002----------- $11b.----------------------------------------$651.2b.

------For the decade 1970s—80s , it reduced to half in Africa compared to the rest of the world
-----In 1980s the global FDI Stock as percentage of GDP was 5.3 percent as opposed Asia ‘s share of 28.1 percent and Latin America and Caribbean share of 8.1 percent by 2000 .And thereafter declined .
-----Therefore she failed woefully to tap the economic incentives provided by FDIs mainly bridging savings gap and the ability to transfer technology

With the benefits of globalization gone to the advanced countries the world has become more unequal over the last 200 years and despite being the most endowed continent is still the poorest [together with middle east ] region in the world controlling less than 1 percent of world trade .In the paper delivered at the 7th Ojetunji Aboyade memorial lecture professor AJayi observed that open trade regime though useful will not propel a country on its path to sustained growth .Those nations that have grown faster are those that invested a high share of GDP and maintained macroeconomic stability .The anchor or the main determinant for Africa ’s growth prospects he noted must be appropriate policy measures , human capital , institutions and infrastructure .Perhaps if noted emigrants could one day return .But this is hardly possible and may not happen in their lifetime due to recklessness of local leaders .

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