November 24, 2015


 Infrastructure in general is the backbone of the economy but  much more man that is a sustainable indicator of a growing economy and its lagging behind cannot be detached from the prism of a poor planned economy .By and large ,since development is a binding factor for all homosapiens ,indeed,the true binding factor of  existence is also the breath of mankind  and the nature of existence respectively   .In this incendiary piece this author  gave perspectives in the most suistable manner and environment and our battle  to live on  to mark diseases. .

First and foremost ,the state of infrastructure  in any clime is a major catalyst for capacity building ,sustainable capacity building ,economic development and sustainable economic development respectively .Obviously  ,it cannot be disputed that  infrastructure plays an extremely  important role in nation building and the practice of development cannot be easily detached from the realm of long term  infrastructural development .It is also a symbolic evidence and a signatory to the level of development in an economy as well as a sole indicator of the development velocity mass at a particular period . Development can be measured by its robustness , quantity and quality especially in the provision of social services as may be desired by the state at a given period.This indicates thoroughly that to raise the level of development velocity and the practice of development including  development regime respectively in an economy of a nation  is to optimally maximizes the proportion of sustainable growth  via infrastructural development at a particular period.Infact ,the mechanization of industrial system,industrialization and the so called evolution of modern information technology age  cannot be possible without its welfare and providence .It is therefore a principal agent and apex gauge of  national development and modern civilisation.
The World Bank -1994 ]like Kindle Berger in his book ‘Economic Development ‘ defines infrastructure  as ‘Social Overhead Capital ‘ providing services and public amenities as public goods such as telecom ,solid waste disposal services  ,electricity ,water supply  ,Sanitation,sewage   and a host of such public goods .It can also b e regarded as public works such as drainage ,Roads , canals and major Dam works with utility channeled to irrigation and transport facilities  including  urban and inter-urban services  movements ,Airports ,rails and waterways .It is therefore the structural linkage between the arts and practice,developing system and developed system, leadership and followership, urban and rural ,government and the people-governed  and the evidence of  political boons and democracy  dividends –a consensus signatory to development and as a development barometer is invariably  a custodian of social contract and cultural contract respectively between the state and the nation ,nationalities and customs ,demographics and moral exigencies of the state.
Understanding the nature of development system and timely needed development regimes including demographical dispersal and velocity distribution and the strategic impact of widespread circulation of its mutual benefits to both the state and the nation can insulates a nation against social instability .Infact the longevity of the state rests largely on the insurable welfare of this  state of infrastructure adequacy  .Mass investment in infrastructural development closes the gap between government and the people,the governance and the governed .As incentives for capacity building and nation building ,physical infrastructural development has taken a life of his own growing at alarming rate with the advent of modern civilization. Nations that have thrived and enjoyed landmark economic expansion  and accelerates economic growth have had massive influences and  opportunity to be tied  to its apron string as the main catalyst of better standard of living in the international community.The applications of modern technological driven infrastructure tends to produce widespread economic relief and competitive development regimes.
Infrastructure provides a framework for the participation of the people ,demographics and for acceleration of faster  growth in output ,reduces cost of production ,institutional dysnfunctioning ,promotes development , national competitiveness and higher productivity .By increasing the quality of growth and the quality and quantity of outputs ,the gains of higher productivity is transformed into higher competitiveness.This enables competitive growth creating enabling environment for economic agents   and workforce in its surrounding condition .Access to free information disclosure can enhance and optimise its impact on a nation’s external terms of trade .
The objectives of the paper is to lay more emphasis on the role of infrastructure in economic development.Industrialisation as requited by Sanusi-2012] means ;’the totality of relations involving workers ,employers  and the society as they develop to make up  the new machines ,process of building up a nation’s capacity  to connect raw materials and  other inputs into finished goods  and manufactured goods for other production or for final consumption –Anyanwu,et al.,1997].While the United States committee on planning -1974] sees it as not only a means of producing wider variety of products by the application of  modern technology , with the strategic intent and ultimate means of revamping the condition of work and  standard of living of the poverty stricken people of the world .Ibikunle-2012 sees it as the standard definition of industrialization and a radical means of transformation process and transformation management process respectively facilitated and accelerated by the inviolable commerce of cumulative information production  for the purpose of exchange and distribution of tangible and intangible discharge and production  of goods and services It is the middle stage and middle passage of modern civilization and ultimate alibi of standard growth of required standard of living of the citizenry  and development velocity mass as needed to safeguard the task of nation building  .With this platform industrialization distributes and redistributes national income ,potentially banish inequality of wealth and reduces mass poverty  based on the significance and sustainable leverage of the productive sector creating enabling environment for the creation of mass employment and poverty free economy  depending on available macroeconomic strategy at a time.
Industrialization promotes rapid economic development in an economy in which better infrastructure is put in place and infrastructural development can also be seen as an integral part of industrialization process or at best regarded as base metal of industrialization .In terms of its role in infrastructural development  industrialization process economic surplus that further stimulates economic development and therefore as symbolically accelerates faster  growth in output  and diversification function of that output .This could lead to structural change conducive to sustainable income distribution and economic growth.UNIDO;1993],Sanusi:2012].The diversification  functions  also stimulates higher productivity ,better competitiveness ,efficiency and inducing growth for further diversification  of exports ,multiplying capability effect and value added incentives to sustainable revamp the process of the nation’s terms of trade and strengthens development pattern and velocity of a nation .
The development of  several studies  in the classical literature  and academic development discourse that opine that industrialization brings about  social equality should be debunked not just with a wave of hand but its thematic ambiguity expelled with its undebatable  misrepresentation of convoluted facts .The same with infrastructural development .Rather what it does is to set the pace for the mobilization of social equality using its revolutionary platform as vehicle of social transformation ,promotes higher level of social stability , mass employment and more equitable distribution of disposable income setting the pace for social equality and closes the gap between the rich and the poor ,haves and haves not .This invariably provides the society with the tool to get the there or get the work done .The management of the economy at large  and the predisposition of governance institutions available at the helms of leadership and followership  regimes provides the avenue for the mobilization of raw materials and production of finished goods .Its most important benchmark as evidence of structural change is the alteration or change in the nature of physical ,material ,economic ,human and natural resources  previously deployed in comparison to altered environment .
Anyanwu et al -1997 ]unveiled the significance of industrialization and its multiplier effect on finished goods or intermediate goods .Output expansion  and mass employment reflects diversification of wealth ,boosts human capital and manpower development and generate foreign exchange to the fullest of natural resources potential of the State . This cannot be possible according to Oshikoya  et al.2012] without that critical mass .Obviously it is a causal factor for growth drivers and also a pivotal stalk of  growth sustainability and competitiveness of such growth .Sanusi:2012] also commended it” plays the role of both consumption goods and input into the production process of nearly  every sector “.
It further noted “As a driving factor of economic growth ,there is a strong correlation between the growth of GDP   and economic infrastructure  which tends to work both ways .Growth of infrastructure  can result from the demand  of other sectors e.g.industry that needs ports ,roads and power  supplies to function well”The availability of such facilities tends to stimulate investment for exponential economic growth promoting value added productive and competitive and barrier breaking sustainable economic development .
Infrastructure provides incentives that reduces cost, buoy mass productivity and enhances price competitiveness .It also unleashes unusual growth in  investment , savings ,consumption and increases the investment rate of marginal projects  and allied divestiture by economic agents  who now exploit diverse ranges  to invest in a non-inflationary environment .Consequently growth velocity increases and as a determinant of price and non-price competitiveness in the international markets also enhances  competitiveness among various factors of production mobilisable for every round economic growth .It also improves price and non-price competitiveness as intermediate input  in both low cost ,high and marginal form of infrastructure service.
It accelerates trade in foreign market ,boosting timely and safe delivery of goods and services  and adequately promote free flow of technical information  needed for such trade justifying its essence also as a determinant of non-price competitiveness .As market capacity is governed by a given proportion of development ,so also is the level  of  the capital flows public and private is also determined by the level of convenience entrenched  in the existing infrastructure as an enabling environment  for long run economic growth .In some economies it is faster to recoup mass investment made in infrastructure say telecom  for instance .Whereas in some other countries it can be tedious venture but still in the long run infrastructure risk-reward pay off is often a boon to the economy .
Generally speaking the state of infrastructure in Africa is deplorable begging for urgent attention  by policy makers, bureaucrats and politician alike  and parlous in outlook in general .
Although over the last few years Africa has benefitted immensely from some gigantic improvements  in infrastructure .A monumental jump  of over 50 percent  of AFRICANS  who lived with one form of GSM signal in 2006 had redefined the pattern of economic growth on the dark continent .Five African countries and twelve others have either met millennium development targets for universal water access or are on track to achieve same,huge development space still begs for massive attention
Electricity ,motor able roads ,workable rail ,water facilities and a host of other facilities  and  basic amenities are in short supply in the economies under survey .A basket of prepaid mobile phone services  on a monthly basis costs 12 dollars compared to only 2 dollars  in south Asia ;Africans pay twice   as much for basic services like elsewhere around the world   ;more than 20 percent of African population spreading from Ghana , Cameroun, Mauritania Niger ,Tanzania and Mauritania to access basic or primary water supply must travel two kilometers’ and only one out of three Africans in the rural areas have access to  all-season roads  compared to 80 percent of Africa ‘s main road network under good attention …
Sanusi-2011 notes that Africa accounts for 20 percent of global telecom lines  and that there are more telephone lines in Brazil than  the whole of AFRICA. This shortfall nevertheless is  still an improvement than what we had in 2001 when telephone lines in New York alone exceeded the whole of Africa .Nigeria’s teledensity now is 70:100 compared to 0.6 percent  in 2001 when the revolution started.The provision of basic amenities was skewed in favour of the urban areas whereas 80 percent of  Nigerians  live in  blackout with no electricity ,no light.source:ADB/CBN :2003 .The  repairable stage of existing facilities and vandalisation menace ,diversion of funds for capital projects ,maintenance of overbureacreaucy  and construction of new facilitites has led to perennial economic decline ,sabotage of growth ,low productivity  and growing deindustrialization in which the industrial  production and capacity utilization  perpetually declines wobbling tirelessly without lasting resolve .For instance according to CBN annual report  and statement of accounts ,variouis issssues , and index of major industrialization nosedived from 162.9 percent  in 1990 to 131.8 percent in 1998 .Also  in another study the capacity utilization eroded from capacity utilization rose from  73.3 percent  in 1981 to 32.4 percent  in 1998 and 55 percent respectively  in 2009.
There can  be no substitute  for infrastructure and industrial development flag  especially its strategic importance in the distribution  of national income and wealth .-a giant missing link to developing countries .Its capacity is predominantly oriented to close the gap between the rich and poor nations in the international community should not be overemphasized .Barrier to capacity building effectively declines through infrastructural development and its impact on sustainable economic development.Consequently industrial development stimulates leverage on existing infrastructure to boost wealth creation and maximum  growth in capacity of the economy at large .
The case of gross under capacity utilization and idle human capacity is symbolic with low index of industrial production  and the inability of the state to put idle capital and labour into production .As long as idle labour exists ,it can be very difficult to stimulate infrastructural development in a low skilled environment which may not necessarily entails putting idle labour into productive use .In other words ,infrastructural development  and human capacity building must be stimulated alongside each other for the enterprise of  human and capacity building via sustainable infrastructural development to reap the reward  and gain of long term  industrial development. Human resources are either clogs  or tools to manage  these machines which when successfully impugned to signify  sectoral decline has been noted as paramount key of industrialization.
Anyanwu et al :1997 ] places more emphasis on the role of infrastructural development vis-a-vis  its strategic impact on economic development .This includes the provision of a channel  for the transformation  of raw materials  into finished goods  .This boosts  mass employment ,grows culture ,diversify the economic base and helps balloons the forex base revenues ,optimize use of raw materials ,reduce external debt burden  dependence and grow local capacity building .
However the concept of infrastructure is a bit  broad based and especially the categorization of infrastructural types ensures the use of optimal analysis for purpose of clarity .The complex competition that infrastructure provides in the stimulation of industrial development for the purpose of economic development  cannot be overemphasized ,thereby motivation the role of infrastructure in nation building .
In fra structure can be divided into public or conventional physical infrastructure  as referred earlier to - by Harvard professor Jeffrey Sachs .Besides we have  anew form of human infrastructure or perhaps the oldest or youngest form ever since they  were deployed in the mill of labor In developing nation’s labour market of course labor is cheap ,less priced and especially the exploitation of brain drain – a plague to developing nation and a brain gain to advanced has reached the neplus ulstra never seen before in history .Though the physical infrastructure is prominent without with industrialization and a modern standard of living cannot be possible ,there is also financial infrastructure that lubricates the financial sector and  economy at large  .

Energy access is critical to African economic growth and poverty reduction .It is the bedrock of modern civilization .Access to abundant energy supplies often in favor of Africa can promote the rebirth of African economies and renaissance of black civilization . About 30 African countries today are been plagued by monumental energy crisis ;while only one in four Africans can boast of sustainable access to electricity .The total electricity generation output of the 48 sub-Saharan Africa countries put at 68 gigawats is still less than that of Spain .Power constraint according to the corporate sector is still the leading nightmare and apart from South Africa power consumption is barely a percent 1% of the high income countries.
                                               THE STATE OF INFRASTRUCTURE IN NIGERIA
Mordern infrastructure  development  started way back  in the colonial era  marred with a long winding road of unsteady and uneven development .The main exclusive role of the British colonial masters was to intergrate the national boundaries into external trade through the provision of transport infrasport.This facilitated mass invesmnet in rail,roads ,port  meant to evacuate domestic products from the hinterland to link them to local agricultural produce to foreign market  and ensure in exchange the safe delivery of imported manufactured goods.The total  road network by 1950 stood at 4,400km  while the rail network stood at 3,505km narrow gauge track was completed in 1930 and linked lagoa to kano , and then Port Harcourt ..CBN,2003].The size of domestic trade provides stimulus  for low road network expansion of the period .

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